Dr. Rikhab Raj Bhansali
Central Arid Zone Research Institute
Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
Mobile no. 09929061377
Host: Capsicum annuum L. (chili or chilli)
Disease name: Chili leaf curl
Pathogen name: Chilli leaf curl virus
Plant infected by Chilli leaf curl virus.
Chili leaf curl is a serious problem in chili-growing areas of the Jodhpur district of Rajasthan, India. The main symptoms are an upward curling, puckering, and bunching of leaves. The leaves are also reduced in size. Severely affected plants produce fewer, smaller, and deformed fruits. The disease is transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci.
Management of leaf curl in chilli
CHILLI is grown both as a vegetable and a spice crop. Out of the 25 viruses infecting chilli, mosaic and leaf curl disease are the most devastating to almost all chilli varieties grown in India. Wild as well as local cultivars which were resistant to virus diseases are now in verge of extinction due low yield and susceptible yo die-back disease. Mosaic and leaf curl virural diseases are transmitted by insect vectors.
Leaf curl virus disease
Leaf curl disease is transmitted by white flies (Bemisia tabaci). The incidence of mosaic becomes severe when the vector population increases in the field. Natural conditions such as temperature of 25-35 degrees C favour high vector population.
The disease is characterised by puckering of leaf blade, and gradual reduction in the size. Diseased plants flower poorly with low fruit set.In case of leaf curl the disease is characterised by curling of the leaves, and thickening and swelling of veins. In advanced stages the whole plant appears bushy, with stunted growth and fewer flowers. Both the infestations should be managed from seedling stage itself by using seeds from virus free plants.
Seed and Nursery Treatment:
The nursery beds should be covered with nylon net or straw to protect the seedlings from viral infections. Spraying metasystox or rogar at 1ml per litre of water at 10 days’ interval will control the incidence in the nursery. In the main field, infected plants should be removed as soon as they are noticed. – Raising barrier crops such as maize, sorghum, pearl millet or snap bean around chillies in two to three rows will reduce the disease level. – Application of Diazinon, Metasystox, Melathion or Endosulphan 0.2 per cent or imidacloprid 17.8 SL (0.003%) at 15 days’ interval till the harvest.- Spraying monocrotophos at 0.05 per cent at 10 days interval in the field. Spraying should be stopped 15-20 days before harvest of the crop.
Other method by using plant products such as Neem Seed kernal extract (5%) found also effective. Management by insecticides, ) was most effective.
Dr. RR Bhansali
- Principal Scientist (Retired),
- Department of Plant Pathology
- Central Arid zone Research Institute (CAZRI)
- Jodhpur 342008